Markee International
Corporation
21st Century GREEN Chemistry
614-771-8989
 

Markee Testimonials

Markee invests heavily in research to bring out new products and improve
existing products.  Here are some items we can reveal at this time:

1. A dramatic new
sizing and forming lubricant that outperforms any
aqueous product, including
MK-GoldMagnum®. It  even outperforms
straight oils, and the highly expensive fluorocarbon products that are so
bad for the environment. We hereby introduce the
MK-Platinum line.  This
product makes the highest possible sizing  densification a breeze.  It is do
powerful that we are providing it in three concentrations, giving you some
options.
a.  
MK-Platinum has the full strength of lubrication, rust inhibitors,
copper protection, and biocides.
b.  
MK-P75 has 75% of the lubricant  strength, but the full charge of
rust inhibitors, copper protection, and biocides.
c.  
MK-P40 has 40% of the lubricant strength, but has the full
charge of rust inhibitors, copper protection, and biocides.                
Here are two actual examples of selecting the right product.  A customer
was using a solvent -based lubricant that worked just fine. The motivation
was to get rid  of the solvent for better steam treat results, and to reduce
VOC usage in the  plant. The
MK-P40  is diluted to 50% concentration in
tap water and it works great. Another customer likes
MK-Platinum diluted
to 75% concentration. To eliminate the chance of mixing errors, they use
straight
MK-P75. So far, no one has needed the full strength of
MK-Platinum for any sizing or forming operation-but we've got it, and no
one has anything even closer!
2.  Foam issues always plague aqueous compounds.  We recently
developed a  combination of anti-foam agents that will reduce foam by
50% across our product line. Early customer feedback, "It is awesome."

Meanwhile, the reports of increased tool life in all cutting applications,
and phenomenally increased wheel life in grinding applications continue to
roll in.  We just visited a shop that cuts large CRS forms, and they report
excellent blade life and nearly cold parts while cutting with
MK-Goldturn.  
The operator enthusiasm for no-odor and no skin irritation was really
gratifying.

Here is an idea from an
MK-144 customer: Use it in your floor washing
machines.  There is no damage or corrosion on the parts or machines that
get splashed, and the floors are cleaner than ever.    


                *Two Recent Unsolicited Testimonials about
                                            MK-GoldTurn*

1.  On Sept 24th a machining job shop in Northern Ohio requested test samples.  On
Dec 12, they ordered production quantities.  The plant manager told us that he has been operating a
machine shop for over 30 years and has tried about every coolant that comes down the pike.  
(Being near Cleveland he is targeted by every known coolant salesman you can imagine.)  He said,
"Your product is the best coolant I have ever seen."  His perishable tool life has increased about
40%.  He machines all the usual metals, and does just about every machining operation.  The
majority of his work is on SS.

2.  A powdered metal manufacturer started testing MK-GoldTurn in their secondary operations
about six weeks ago.  The VP called to tell me that they have contacted the hone machine
manufacturer and suggested that they recommend our product to their customers.  He has replaced
the usual stinky sulfonated oil, using our product at 30% concentration in tap water.  Everyone in
the shop is thrilled with the performance, cleanliness, no odor, etc.

                                                         

New Information & Things Going
On at Markee
                           Toxicity of Fragrances

                                        THE BOTTOM LINE

Is toxicity due to fragrances a practical concern?  When the LD50 is above 2000 a
product is considered essentially non-toxic.  To calculate the LD50 of a product
made with 0.25% essential lemon oil you divide 2480 by 0.0025 and get an LD50
of 992,000.  If made with a typical synthetic fragrance it would be 1,560,000.  
These numbers are far beyond the 2000 threshold of toxicity.  In the case of the
lemon fragrance, this means that 2.18 lbs of the substance must be consumed for
each kilo of body weight.  That is about one pound for each pound of body
weight.  A 100 lb person would have to drink about 100 lbs, or 12 gallons in a
single dose, to have a 50/50 chance of survival. These numbers are just based
on the fragrance, and in a complete product there would be other ingredients to
consider, but clearly even the most toxic fragrances create no realistic concern.

                                         
      DISCUSSION

Of all the hazards of various constituents in household products, toxicity seems to
constitute the greatest concern in the minds of the public. Contrary to popular
belief, the fact that a substance is toxic does not mean it will always kill people or
animals exposed to it. Almost all substances, including water, are lethal if taken in
sufficient quantities. As noted by the Swiss Physician Paracelsus, “All substances
are poisons.  The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy”  For example,
1.5 grams of arsenic trioxide will kill a 180 pound man; but in very small doses it
may be used medicinally. Small amounts of vitamin D (ca. 10 micrograms per day)
are necessary for good health, but in larger amounts it is more toxic than arsenic
compounds.

Most of the poisons with which we are familiar are acute toxins.  They cause
immediate death in sufficient dosages.  The common measure of toxicity is the
LD50.  That is the dosage, if given to a population of animals, will kill half of the
population.  (Considerable research has been done to eliminate animal testing
and still to evaluate toxicity, but this measurement is widely used even though
the values may not have been obtained by animal testing.)  The results vary with
animals and humans, but the most common reference is to rats.  The dosage
varies based on animal weight; a dose of one gram for a 200 lb animal is the
same as one-half gram for a 100 lb animal. The lower the LD50, the more toxic
the substance.  Some examples of LD50's for common substances, including
several essential oils, are given in Table 1.  Some highly toxic materials are listed
in Table 2.  LD50's vary markedly with the animal species used, and the way in
which the test substance is administered. Most of the compounds in Tables 1 & 2
were administered orally using rats and mice.

Many people are surprised to learn that the toxicity of a given substance has no
relationship to whether it is synthetic (manufactured) or natural. Nearly two
thirds of the extremely toxic substances in Table 2 are of natural origin.

Table 1 LD50's of Some Common Substances (alphabetical)(using mice or rats)
Substance                                                           Animal              LD50 (mg/kg)
Acetaminophen(analgesic in Tylenol)                Mice                     340
Acetic Acid(component of vinegar)                    Rats                     3,350
Arsenic Trioxide                                                    Rats                     15
Aspirin                                                                     Mice & Rats        1,500
BHA(antioxidant food additive)                          Mice                     2,000
Caffeine                                                                  Mice                    130
Clove Oil                                                                  Rats                    3720
Cholecalciferol Vitamin D-3                                  Rats                    42
Ethyl Alcohol                                                           Rats                    10,300
Eucalyptus Oil                                                        Rats                     2,480
Garlic Oil                                                                 Rats                     1,360
Ibuprofin(analgesic in Advil)                               Rats                     1,000
Lavender Oil                                                          Rats                     4250
Lemon Oil                                                               Rats                     2,480
Myrrh Oil                                                                Rats                     1,650
Nicotine                                                                  Mice                     230
Orange Oil                                                             Rats                     5000
Peppermint Oil                                                      Rats                     2,426
Sodium Benzoate(food preservative)               Rats                    4,100
Sodium Chloride                                                    Rats                     3,730
Sodium Fluoride  -used in tooth paste               Rats                     52
Stannous Fluoride                                                 Rats                     377
Synthetic Fragrance                                             Rats                     3,900
Tea Tree Oil                                                          Rats                     1,900
Vitamin B1(thiamine hydrochloride)                  Mice                     8,200
Vitamin A                                                               Mice                     2,500

Table 2 LD50's of Some Toxic Substances (most to least toxic)(using mice or rats)
Substance                                                                                    LD50 (mg/kg)
Botulinum Toxin A                                                                       0.00000003
Ricin(castor bean toxin)                                                            0.000003
Tetanus Toxin A                                                                          0.000003
Diphtheria Toxin                                                                          0.0003
TCDD (dioxin                                                                                0.03
Muscarine(a mushroom toxin)                                                  0.2
Sarin(a nerve gas)                                                                      0.4
Strychnine                                                                                     0.5
Soman & Tabun(nerve gases)                                                   0.6
Curare(tubocurare)                                                                     0.7
Rotenone(a natural insecticide)                                                 3.0
Parathione(a synthetic insecticide)                                           4.0
Sodium Cyanide                                                                            15.0


N.B. The lower the LD50 the higher the toxicity.


Many natural fragrances, essential oils, are more toxic than synthetic
fragrances.  Synthetic fragrances have various LD50 values; typically they have
LD50’s of 3,900 mg/kg.  Common substances that are more toxic than most
synthetic fragrances are:
          

Advil
Arsenic
Aspirin
BHA – antioxidant food additive
Caffeine
Clove Oil
Eucalyptus Oil
Fluorides – Stannous and Sodium used in toothpaste
Garlic Oil
Lemon Oil
Myrrh Oil
Nicotine
Peppermint Oil
Table salt
Tea Tree Oil  
Tylenol
Vinegar
Vitamin A
Vitamin D-3


Toxicity is also related to the dilution ratio; if you cut a substance by 50%, you
can expect the toxicity to be cut in half, as well.  Consumer products such as
dishwash detergents, shampoos, and laundry detergents use very little
fragrance.  Just how much is used will depend on the desired result, cost
considerations, marketing strategy, and a few other factors.  The range is
probably from 0.01% to 0.5% of the total product, so the fragrance is generally
diluted anywhere from 200 to 10,000 times in the product, and then further
diluted up to hundreds more times in actual use.

Many highly toxic substances are, or have been, used as medicines.  Well known
ones include mercury, strychnine, and arsenic.  Some interesting history about
arsenic, a favorite poison for murder and suicide, is that it has been used to
treat:  Anemia, rheumatism, psoriasis, eczema, dermatitis, herpes, asthma,
cholera, syphilis, leukemia, and yeast infections.

A convenient web site for getting LD50 information is www.sciencelab.com.  Look
up the MSDS for the substance and then refer to Section 2.  The LD50 is
frequently shown in that section.
                                          
                                
 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS  

Obviously, washing compounds, laundry compounds, hand cleaners, shampoos,
and related items are not intended for human consumption.  LD50’s are based on
oral intake, and that is the standard for quantifying toxicity.  Another, and more
lengthy discussion about fragrances can include their volatility.  That is how
quickly they evaporate into the air around them.  In general, essential oil
fragrances have high vapor pressures, and they contaminate the surrounding air
very quickly.  The toxicity as measured by LD50’s is an indication of the toxicity of
their vapors. Essential oils are widely used in aromatherapy, massage oils,
candles and other products because they are very volatile.  Anyone concerned
with fragrances in soaps, cleaners, and related products may want to avoid
massages, aromatherapy, incense, and fragrant candles.

Another factor is the tendency of essential oils to promote growth of bacteria,
fungi, and mold.  Natural oils make good food for microorganisms.  When
essential oils are used in preference to synthetic fragrances, more care must be
taken to inhibit growth of bacteria in the product.  This requires the use of wide-
range biocides that, themselves, come with cautions regarding their use.  (If you
have ever seen thick, white, semi-elastic precipitate at the bottom of a detergent
or soap container, that is bacteria.)
ULTRA KLEEN®